REFORMAS TRABALHISTAS E DESEMPREGO: ANÁLISE TEÓRICA E EMPÍRICA DE EXPERIÊNCIAS INTERNACIONAIS

Kaiza Correia Oliveira

Resumo


O debate entre rigidez na legislação trabalhista e nível de emprego se intensificou nas últimas décadas, assim como o corpo de evidências empíricas sobre os impactos das instituições do mercado de trabalho. De modo que muitos estudos foram realizados com o objetivo de analisar empiricamente como as reformas no mercado de trabalho em todo o mundo estão produzindo resultados. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse artigo foi fornecer uma perspectiva equilibrada sobre como a literatura tem tratado a relação entre reforma trabalhista e nível de desemprego e os impactos das reformas mensurados através do uso de modelos econométricos. Os resultados encontrados sugeriram que as instituições do mercado de trabalho não têm efeitos sobre o desemprego, e mesmo quando impactam, este impacto é pequeno em termos substantivos e diferem entre os estudos, além de serem sensíveis as especificações dos modelos econométricos, das variáveis e dos dados escolhidos. Assim, o que pode ser observado é que o impacto das instituições não é direto e pode depender das configurações e interações institucionais que são particulares a cada economia, tais como as políticas macroeconomias que são mais determinantes para taxa de desemprego do que as políticas de proteção ao emprego.


Palavras-chave


Mercado de Trabalho. Flexibização do trabalho. Políticas de emprego.

Texto completo:

PDF/A

Referências


ADASCALITEI, Dragos; MORANO, Clemente Pignatti. Labour market reforms since the crisis: Drivers and consequences. Internat. Labour Office, 2015.

AVDAGIC, Sabina; SALARDI, Paola. Tenuous link: labour market institutions and unemployment in advanced and new market economies. Socio-Economic Review, v. 11, n. 4, p. 739-769, 2013.

BACCARO, Lucio; REI, Diego. Institutional determinants of unemployment in OECD countries: Does the deregulatory view hold water?. International Organization, v. 61, n. 3, p. 527-569, 2007.

BARROS, Ricardo Paes de; CORSEUIL, Carlos Henrique; MENDONÇA, Rosane. Uma análise da estrutura salarial brasileira baseada na PPV. 1999.

BASSANINI, Andrea; DUVAL, Romain. The determinants of unemployment across OECD countries. OECD Economic Studies, v. 2006, n. 1, p. 7-86, 2006.

BELOT, Michèle; VAN OURS, Jan C. Does the recent success of some OECD countries in lowering their unemployment rates lie in the clever design of their labour market reforms?. IZA Discussion paper series, 2000.

BELOT, Michele; VAN OURS, Jan C. Unemployment and labor market institutions: an empirical analysis. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, v. 15, n. 4, p. 403-418, 2001.

BELOT, Michèle; BOONE, Jan; VAN OURS, Jan C. Welfare effects of employment protection. 2002.

BELOT, Michèle; VAN OURS, Jan C. Does the recent success of some OECD countries in lowering their unemployment rates lie in the clever design of their labor market reforms?. Oxford Economic Papers, v. 56, n. 4, p. 621-642, 2004.

BERNAL-VERDUGO, Lorenzo E.; FURCERI, Davide; GUILLAUME, Dominique. Labor market flexibility and unemployment: new empirical evidence of static and dynamic effects. Comparative Economic Studies, v. 54, n. 2, p. 251-273, 2012.

BERTOLA, Giuseppe; BLAU, Francine D.; KAHN, Lawrence M. Comparative analysis of labor market outcomes: lessons for the US from international long-run evidence. National bureau of economic research, 2001.

BERTOLA, Giuseppe; BLAU, Francine D.; KAHN, Lawrence M. Labor market institutions and demographic employment patterns. Journal of Population Economics, v. 20, n. 4, p. 833-867, 2007.

BALL, Laurence; MANKIW, N. Gregory; NORDHAUS, William D. Aggregate demand and long-run unemployment. Brookings papers on economic activity, v. 1999, n. 2, p. 189-251, 1999.

BLANCHARD, Olivier; WOLFERS, Justin. The role of shocks and institutions in the rise of European unemployment: the aggregate evidence. The Economic Journal, v. 110, n. 462, p. C1-C33, 2000.

CAMPOS, Nauro F.; NUGENT, Jeffrey. The dynamics of the regulation of labor in developing and developed countries since 1960. 2012.

BUSINESS, Doing. Reforming to create jobs. World Bank Group, Washington, 2018.

ELMESKOV, Jørgen; MARTIN, John P.; SCARPETTA, Stefano. Key lessons for labour market reforms: Evidence from OECD countries' experience. Swedish economic policy review, v. 5, n. 2, 1998.

ESLAVA, Marcela et al. The effects of structural reforms on productivity and profitability enhancing reallocation: evidence from Colombia. Journal of development Economics, v. 75, n. 2, p. 333-371, 2004.

FELDMANN, Horst. The unemployment effects of labor regulation around the world. Journal of Comparative Economics, v. 37, n. 1, p. 76-90, 2009.

GLYN, Andrew et al. Labor Market Institutions and Unemployment: A Critical Assessment of the Cross-Country Evidence. 2003.

HOWELL, David R.; REHM, Miriam. Unemployment compensation and high European unemployment: a reassessment with new benefit indicators. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, v. 25, n. 1, p. 60-93, 2009.

HECKMAN, J.; PAGÉS, CARMEN. The cost of job security regulation: Evidence from Latin American countries. NBER Working paper, v. 7773, 2000.

HECKMAN, James J.; PAGÉS, Carmen. Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean–An Introduction. Law and employment: lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean, 2004.

HOFLING, ELOISA DE et al. Estado e políticas (públicas) sociais. Cadernos Cedes, 2001.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). Unemployment andd Labor Market Institutions: Why Reforms Pay Off. In: World Economic Outlook (April). Washington, DC: IMF.

LAYARD, Richard et al. Unemployment: macroeconomic performance and the labour market. Oxford University Press on Demand, 2005.

MONDINO, Guillermo; MONTOYA, Silvia. The effects of labor market regulations on employment decisions by firms. Empirical evidence for Argentina. In: Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean. University of Chicago Press, p. 351-400, 2004.

NICKELL, S. ‘Unemployment and Labour Market Rigidities: Europe versus North

America’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11, 55–74. 1997.

NICKELL, Stephen et al. The Beveridge Curve, Unemployment and Wages in the OECD from the 1960s to the 1990s. Knowledge, Information, and Expectations in Modern Macroeconomics: In Honor of Edmund S. Phelps, p. 357-393, 2001. (Revisado em 2002).

NICKELL, S., et al. ‘Unemployment in the OECD since the 1960s.

What Do We Know?’, Economic Journal, 115, 1–27. 2005.

NICOLETTI, Giuseppe; SCARPETTA, Stefano. Do regulatory reforms in product and labor markets promote employment? Evidence from OECD countries. In: ECB/CEPR Conference on" What Helps or Hinders Labor Market Adjustments in Europe". Frankfurt. 2004. p. 28-29.

NICOLETTI, Giuseppe; SCARPETTA, Stefano. Product market reforms and employment in OECD countries. 2005.

NUNZIATA, Luca et al. Unemployment, labour market institutions and shocks. Oxford, UK: Nuffield College, 2002.

OCDE. The OECD Jobs Study: Evidence and explanations. Part I: Labour market trends and the underlying forces of change. 1994.

OIT, World Employment and Social Outlook 2015: The Changing Nature of Jobs, 2015. Disponível em http://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/weso/2015-changing-nature- of-jobs/WCMS_368626/lang--en/index.htm

SAAVEDRA, Jaime; TORERO, Mhmo. Labor Market reforms and their impact over formal labor demand and job market turnover. The case of Peru. In: Law and Employment: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean. University of Chicago Press, p. 131-182, 2004.

SCARPETTA, Stefano. Assessing the role of labour market policies and institutional settings on unemployment: A cross-country study. OECD Economic studies, v. 26, n. 1, p. 43-98, 1996.

SIEBERT, Horst. Labor market rigidities: at the root of unemployment in Europe. Journal of Economic perspectives, v. 11, n. 3, p. 37-54, 1997.

TEIXEIRA, Marilane Oliveira et al. Contribuição Crítica à Reforma Trabalhista. Campinas, SP: CESIT/IE/Unicamp, 2017.

VERGEER, Robert; KLEINKNECHT, Alfred. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004). International Labour Review, v. 153, n. 3, p. 365-393, 2014.

VERGEER, Robert; KLEINKNECHT, Alfred. The impact of labor market deregulation on productivity: a panel data analysis of 19 OECD countries (1960-2004). Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, v. 33, n. 2, p. 371-408, 2010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25247/2447-861X.2019.n248.p544-577

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.




Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

Cadernos do CEAS: Revista Crítica de Humanidades
CEAS | UCSal | UNICAP
PPG em Políticas Sociais e Cidadania
Av. Cardeal da Silva, 205 – Federação.
CEP. 40231-902, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil.
E-mail: cadernosdoceas@gmail.com
ISSN (online): 2447-861X 

 

INDEXAÇÃO/DIVULGAÇÃO

Bases de Dados/Diretórios

  |  | 

 

Portais

 |   |

 

Filiação/Suporte Técnico/Identificador

 |  | 

 

Plataforma

 

Redes Sociais